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Off-roading is an activity that involves driving motorized vehicles in areas that lack defined roadways. Any vehicle can be taken off-road, but those with little ground clearance and two-wheel drive are more likely to become damaged or stuck. Some off-road driving is done simply due to the lack of any well-developed roads in an area, but 4x4 off-roading is also a recreational activity. Unmodified vehicles that have factory tires and stock suspensions are typically limited to light off-road driving, while heavily modified trucks can be taken through deep mud, up sheer rock faces and through other challenging terrain. Some jurisdictions have outlawed off-road driving due to environmental concerns, and others have designated specific areas for this kind of activity.
Recreational 4x4 off-roading can take place on virtually any kind of terrain and also includes specialized activities such as trials and winch events. Greenlaning is the least intensive type of 4x4 off-roading, as the name indicates that existing roadways or trails are used. The reason it is considered to be driving off-road is that the roadways are typically very overgrown or disused. This activity is unsuitable for vehicles that have low ground clearances, since the terrain can include deep potholes, large rocks and other hazards.
More intense forms of 4x4 off-roading are typically limited to modified vehicles. Common modifications that facilitate driving in rough terrain include stronger suspensions, different tires and lift kits. Properly modified vehicles can drive through deep mud, cross fast-moving rivers and navigate large sand dunes. Vehicles that have sufficient traction can also be taken over rocky surfaces and even climb steep inclines.
All types of 4x4 off-roading can require a great deal of skill and caution due to the difficult terrains involved. Many 4x4 vehicles are at risk of rolling over due to high centers of gravity, and this can become an even greater danger when crossing rough terrain. Certain conditions can also lead to the failure of components such as brakes, so it is important to always be aware of the situation.
Off-roading has the potential to damage local ecosystems, so many areas have restrictions on the activity. Some jurisdictions only allow vehicles on authorized roadways and do not allow any degree of off-roading at all. In other areas, 4x4 off-roading can only be done on private land. Other jurisdictions have designated areas where it is legal to drive off-road. The state of Oregon actually allows vehicles to drive on certain beaches, but considers them to be roads for legal purposes.