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A Baja bug is a modified Volkswagen Beetle intended for driving use off-road in the desert, or along beaches. Original model Beetles were usually used for modification into a Baja bug, though some later model, air-cooled versions were used as well. These vehicles became prominent in the 1960s and continue to be popular in modern times; the Volkswagen Beetles are used for these conversions because they are generally easy to modify, they feature stiff, rugged suspension, and the engine is mounted in the rear, leading to better traction as well as less chance of damage.
One of the most common modifications made to the Beetle to make it a Baja bug is the cutting of the front and rear bumpers to improve clearance over rugged terrain. The tires of the vehicle can be swapped out for larger, more aggressively treaded models, and the body of the Beetle is often raised for added clearance. The rear body panel that usually covers the engine is usually cut to partially expose the engine; this aids in air cooling, making the engine more powerful and efficient. A roll bar system is installed within the cabin of the Baja bug to protect the driver and passengers should a rollover occur.
The suspension of the Baja bug can also be modified for longer travel, and the stiff torsion bar suspension is suitable for enduring the rigors of off-road driving. Fiberglass panels often replace the front and rear body panels for weight savings; the light front end helps aid in traction, since the Baja bug does not have four wheel drive. Other components may be removed for weight savings as well, though on early models, fiberglass panels were not yet available and therefore did not end up being used for such conversions.
It is not uncommon to find Baja bugs that lack windshields and other windows. They are removed for safety reasons, as the likelihood of a rollover is much higher with a Baja bug than with a standard Beetle designed for on-road use. Sometimes the bug is fitted with brush guards at the front of the vehicle to protect the undercarriage; lights and other accessories may also be added for convenience and function. Engines are often modified for more power as well, and fuel injection systems from later model Beetles may be often retro-fitted onto original engines for better performance and power. The headers of the engine may be modified for greater efficiency as well.