What Is a Baidarka?
A baidarka is a type of kayak that was developed and commonly used by the Aleutian people. This type of kayak was built from seal skins stretched over bone or driftwood, and the Aleutian people considered the canoe to be a living thing. It was therefore handled with respect, was handled only by the males of the society, as women were not allowed to touch this type of vessel. The frame was built from driftwood and bone because in the Alaskan region where the Aleutian people lived, few or no trees grew, so raw materials had to be found elsewhere.
Seal skins were used as the skin of the baidarka because they were lightweight and water-resistant, allowing the vessel to be buoyant and dry inside. Fishermen who used the Baidarka needed to carry repair kits with them when they fished in the boats, however, because the seal skins were susceptible to damage and would need to be patched on-site while out on the water. Aleutian women would sew the seal skins together for use on the boats, and the men would stretch the skins over the boat's skeleton that was fashioned from wood and bone. The frame materials for the baidarka were designed to be lightweight, making the craft faster and more maneuverable.
The construction process was performed with much care, and traditional tools such as bones and volcanic rock were used to construct the skeleton and to sew the skins. Sinew was used to tie the skins to the skeleton, and the knots used to tie the skins to the skeleton were considered spiritual knots that needed to be done correctly in order to promote strength and spirituality. The wood pieces of the frame were also tied together with these spiritual knots. Women sewed the seal skins together with a special stitch that made the skins waterproof at their seams.
The baidarka was long and narrow, and it allowed for one person to use the craft at a time, or several men, depending on the size and construction. Unlike canoes, the baidarka was enclosed like a kayak out of necessity; this design kept the often frigid Aleutian waters away from the boater's body, and the enclosure could also help retain body heat during cold fishing days. The bow of the boat was forked, giving the vessel a distinct aesthetic to distinguish it from other similar types of vessels.
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