A trailer winch is a device that is attached to a trailer, or an unpowered hauling vehicle that is affixed to a powered hauling vehicle. The function of the trailer winch is to pull heavy items such as boats onto the trailer, and then secure those items in place during towing. Two basic types of winches exist: hand-powered and motorized winches. The latter is usually reserved for loading exceptionally heavy items such as large boats or yachts, while a hand winch is usually sufficient for lighter-duty purposes.
The components that make up the trailer winch include a cable that is wrapped numerous times around a drum or pulley. The pulley is mounted in a frame or block and will feature an axle that can be turned, either by hand or by a motor. Hand-operated winches will feature a hand crank with handle. Motorized trailer winch models will feature a motor housing as well as a plug for a hand controller, or a remote control receiver if the winch has wireless capabilities. The winch itself is usually mounted toward the front of the trailer so the items being hauled can be pulled as far forward on the trailer as possible.
When the cable of the trailer winch is fed out, it can be secured with a hook mounted at the end of the cable to a boat or other item. The cable can then be retracted, thereby pulling the boat or other item forward onto the trailer. Boat trailers usually feature rollers that the hull of the boat can roll onto without damaging the boat itself. This makes the hauling process much easier as well, as there will be less friction during the hauling or pulling of the boat.
Hand-operated trailer winch models may feature a ratcheting system that will prevent slipping should the user accidentally let go of the winch handle. If the cable needs to be released, a release lever will need to be depressed or otherwise activated to allow for slack in the line. Motorized winches usually feature a hand controller that allows a user to dictate in which direction the cable will move at any given time. An emergency shut-off feature may also be included. Many motorized winches require the user to stand within a certain proximity of the winch during operation, as the hand controller must be plugged into the unit. Others feature wireless capabilities that allow the user to walk around the trailer to monitor the boat's progress.